Pubblicazioni scientifiche

"Yokoyama procedure" efficacy on non-highly myopic patients with acquired esotropia and hypotropia

European Journal of Ophthalmology 2020/7

Serafino M, Scaramuzzi M, Villani E, Nucci P


To assess the efficacy of "Yokoyama Procedure," on non-highly myopic patients with acquired esotropia and hypotropia.


The study involved 10 eyes of 5 patients with eso-hypotropia. Inclusion criteria were acquired esotropic-hypotropic strabismus with lateral rectus inferior displacement and superior rectus nasal displacement confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, refractive errors between ±6 D, and axial length < 27 mm. Range of full duction movements and maximum angles of abduction-sursumduction was measured in each eye before and after surgery. All patients underwent T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The surgery was aimed at creating a junction between the muscle bellies of the superior and lateral rectus muscles. This junction was made approximately 14 mm behind the insertions using a non-absorbable mersilene 5/0 suture (Yokoyama procedure).


Mean patient age was 64.8 ± 4.8 years. The mean globe axial length was 25.4 ± 0.76 mm and a mean corresponding spherical equivalent refraction of -3.7 ± 1.7 D was observed. Eight eyes on 10 had mild limitation in abduction, while the remaining 2 had no limitation. Three out of 10 eyes showed a moderate limited sursumduction, 5 eyes were categorized as mild, and the remaining 2 had no limitation. No evident post-operative limitation was present in any eye, in both abduction and sursumduction (p < 0.01). Pre-operative esotropia and hypotropia were, respectively, 32 ± 11 prismatic diopters and 25 ± 5 prismatic diopters, and they were significantly reduced after surgery as 9 ± 1.7 prismatic diopters and 6 ±1 prismatic diopters (p = 0.043), respectively.


Yokoyama procedure is an effective, fast, reversible procedure to face eso-hypotropic acquired strabismus, even in patients with a clear magnetic resonance imaging displacement of superior and lateral rectus muscles, and absence of globe dislocation and of elevated myopia.



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