Pubblicazioni scientifiche

"Yokoyama procedure" efficacy on non-highly myopic patients with acquired esotropia and hypotropia

European Journal of Ophthalmology 2020/7

Serafino M, Scaramuzzi M, Villani E, Nucci P


To assess the efficacy of "Yokoyama Procedure," on non-highly myopic patients with acquired esotropia and hypotropia.


The study involved 10 eyes of 5 patients with eso-hypotropia. Inclusion criteria were acquired esotropic-hypotropic strabismus with lateral rectus inferior displacement and superior rectus nasal displacement confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, refractive errors between ±6 D, and axial length < 27 mm. Range of full duction movements and maximum angles of abduction-sursumduction was measured in each eye before and after surgery. All patients underwent T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The surgery was aimed at creating a junction between the muscle bellies of the superior and lateral rectus muscles. This junction was made approximately 14 mm behind the insertions using a non-absorbable mersilene 5/0 suture (Yokoyama procedure).


Mean patient age was 64.8 ± 4.8 years. The mean globe axial length was 25.4 ± 0.76 mm and a mean corresponding spherical equivalent refraction of -3.7 ± 1.7 D was observed. Eight eyes on 10 had mild limitation in abduction, while the remaining 2 had no limitation. Three out of 10 eyes showed a moderate limited sursumduction, 5 eyes were categorized as mild, and the remaining 2 had no limitation. No evident post-operative limitation was present in any eye, in both abduction and sursumduction (p < 0.01). Pre-operative esotropia and hypotropia were, respectively, 32 ± 11 prismatic diopters and 25 ± 5 prismatic diopters, and they were significantly reduced after surgery as 9 ± 1.7 prismatic diopters and 6 ±1 prismatic diopters (p = 0.043), respectively.


Yokoyama procedure is an effective, fast, reversible procedure to face eso-hypotropic acquired strabismus, even in patients with a clear magnetic resonance imaging displacement of superior and lateral rectus muscles, and absence of globe dislocation and of elevated myopia.



Cos’è un iniezione intravitreale? E’ dolorosa?

Come posso accorgermi di avere una maculopatia?